CHARACTERISTICS OF CHARACTERISTICS WITH SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL NEEDS AND WORKING GUIDELINES FOR TEACHERS
Students with intellectual disabilities
Mental retardation is characterized by a significantly lower than average general intellectual functioning with a simultaneous limitation in two or more of the following adaptation skills: communication, self-service, home lifestyle, socialization, use of socio-cultural goods, independence, care for health and safety , school skills, organizing free time and work.
Difficulties in learning and assimilating the knowledge of students with mild intellectual disabilities:
- lack of independence, creativity, initiative and a well-thought-out action plan,
difficulties in the field of analysis, synthesis, abstraction and inference,
spatial orientation disorders,
- low level of graphomotor performance,
- underdevelopment of higher feelings (social, moral, patriotic, aesthetic),
- greater than in children with the norm of intellectual emotional instability, impulsiveness,
- inadequate self-esteem,
- worse self-control
- less sense of responsibility,
- difficulties in linking new knowledge with previously possessed,
- difficulties in applying the acquired knowledge in a specific activity,
- slow pace of work,
- low self-esteem.
When working with a mildly mentally retarded child, the teacher should pay particular attention to
- learning at an individual pace, setting and achieving individual goals in line with the student’s abilities,
- limiting verbal instructions in favor of introducing verbal-demonstration.
- constant supervision, because these students get bored faster, they easily give up when difficulties occur and tend to leave unfinished work,
- attaching importance to special positive stimuli in the form of praise, encouragement, rewards.
- showing approval, praise for the effort taken and acceptance, allowing for building a positive self-image,
- parent support, psychoeducation and help from the educational institution
in coping with emerging educational difficulties,
- strengthening the learning process by using activating methods,
introducing students to independence.
Deaf and hard of hearing students
Factors that significantly affect the functioning of a student with hearing impairment are: the type of damage, the time when the hearing damage occurred, the degree of hearing damage, the moment of equipping the child with hearing aids or implanting a cochlear implant, family environment (hearing or deaf parents), effectiveness and intensity of therapeutic interactions.
Shaping the language system of a deaf child is a long-term process that requires the involvement of the child himself, his family and educational institutions
A teacher working with a deaf or hard of hearing student should:
- learn about the type of hearing impairment and its consequences,
make every effort to ensure that the development of abstract concepts in students is as complete as possible,
- develop a variety of methods developing analytical and synthetic thinking, which is of key importance not only in mathematics but also in the implementation of other compulsory educational activities, resulting from the framework curriculum,
- select forms of education and teaching methods with the participation and acceptance of the child’s family,
- strive to develop students’ concepts and vocabulary, both active and passive,
discuss activities out loud.
Students with physical disabilities
Motor disability is a manifestation of various diseases and random events, the type and severity of which make it difficult and sometimes impossible to master school knowledge and skills, as well as limit independence and life independence.
The learning difficulties of a student with a mobility disability depend on the type of damage (central or peripheral nervous system), the period of disability (congenital or acquired), and the degree of disability (mild, moderate or severe). childhood paralysis in whom the disability is caused by brain damage.