Students with ADHD
Students with ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) are a group of children who have problems with adaptive behavior. Students with ADHD in the Polish educational system receive opinions from psychological and pedagogical counseling centers.
Students with ADHD exhibit many disorders that make it difficult for them to learn in the classroom:
- are unable to concentrate on details during classes or during their work,
have difficulty paying attention to tasks and games,
- they often do not follow sequentially given instructions and are in trouble
with completing tasks and fulfilling daily duties,
- often have difficulties organizing their work,
- they often lose things necessary for work or other activities,
- are easily distracted by external stimuli,
- are often unable to sit still,
- they often walk around the room or climb furniture when it is inappropriate,
are often overly talkative,
- often have trouble waiting for their turn,
- they often interrupt or disturb others (interfere with conversation or play).
In school work, students with ADHD require teachers to:
- getting to know and understand the specific behaviors and emotions of a child,
acceptance, positive support, increased (in relation to other students) attention
- provide help in joining a peer group,
- establishing and systematizing expectations and requirements (taking into account three principles: regularity, routine, repetition),
- flexibility of working in a group, giving the possibility of additional activity to release emotions,
- close cooperation with parents.
When working with a student with ADHD, the teacher should pay attention to
- organization of the external environment (order, reduction of stimuli),
applying reinforcements (praise, reward),
- limiting the use of drastic educational measures (isolation, “verbal fights”),
- effective communication (short instructions, repetition),
- routine of daily duties,
- consistency in the proceedings,
- establishing positive emotional contact with the student,
- establishing the applicable system of standards and rules.
Students with severe communication disorders
The term students with severe communication disabilities covers several groups of children:
a) a group of linguistic expression, that is, those who hear and understand the speech but cannot use it at all and need alternative forms of language to express themselves.
b) an alternate language group whose representatives have the problem of both
with speech understanding as well as with verbal linguistic expression; In order to communicate with them linguistically, an alternative language must be established for the entire process: a form of communication through which they learn to understand the message of others and, on the basis of this skill, start to use it themselves.
c) a linguistic support group; there are children and adolescents who understand speech and make attempts to speak, but the verbal message is not understandable and adequate to the needs and cognitive and social abilities of the child. For them, the alternative language is intended to complement or support the spoken language.
Every student with language communication disorders needs:
- proper, reliable diagnosis and decisions of specialists about the use of alternative or supportive methods of communication (AAC) already at the level of early support or at
- least – preschool education,
- help in learning to understand and express at the pre-linguistic and linguistic level,