BCG vaccination for infants at risk for HIV infection

As in infants symptoms of HIV-infection rarely appear before several months of age, BCG vaccination should be administered to those infants regardless of HIV exposure, especially considering the high endemicity of tuberculosis in populations with high HIV prevalence.

Close follow-up of infants known to be born to HIV-infected mothers and who received BCG at birth is recommended in order to provide early identification and treatment of any BCG-related complication.

In settings with adequate HIV services that could allow for early identification and administration of antiretroviral therapy to HIV-infected children, consideration should be given to delaying BCG vaccination in infants born to mothers known to be infected with HIV until these infants are confirmed to be HIV negative.

Infants who demonstrate signs or reported symptoms of HIV-infection and who are born to women known to have HIV infection should not be vaccinated.