Immunization error-related reaction
Immunization errorsImmunization errorAn AEFI classification that refers to events caused by errors in vaccine preparation, handling, or administration. often constitute the greatest proportion of AEFIs. They can include deaths associated with the reconstitution of vaccines with an incorrect diluentDiluentA fluid provided in a vial or ampoule that is mixed with lyophilized vaccine powder before the vaccine can be injected. Diluents are not interchangeable. Vaccines have different diluents; mixing and administering the wrong diluent with a vaccine has led to serious adverse events including death. or a drugDrug (or medicine)Any substance in a pharmaceutical product that is used to modify or exploit physiological systems or pathological states for the benefit of the recipient. The term drug/medicinal product is used in a wider sense to include the whole formulated and registered product, including the presentation and packaging, and the accompanying information. Vaccines are drugs/medicines. (e.g. insulin).
Immunization errors result from errors in vaccine preparation, handling, storage or administration. They are preventable and detract from the overall benefit of the immunization programme. The identification and correction of these incorrect immunization practices are of great importance.
Immunization errors can result in a cluster of events, defined as two or more cases of the same adverse event related in time, place or vaccine administered. These clustersClusterTwo or more instances of an event related in time, place, population subgroup, or common exposure (e.g., vaccine). AEFI clusters are usually associated with a particular provider, health facility, and/or a vial of vaccine that has been inappropriately prepared or contaminated. are usually associated with a particular provider or health facility, or a vial of vaccine that has been inappropriately prepared or contaminated. Immunization errors can also affect many vials, for example, freezing vaccine during transport may result in an increase in local reactions.
Examples of immunization errors and possible AEFIs
* Ineffective vaccine is not strictly an adverse event; it is a vaccine failure.
What immunization error can most likely occur if vaccines are kept in the same refrigerator as other drugs?
|A. The vaccine could be stored incorrectly.|
|B. Contraindication could be ignored.|
|C. A reconstitution error might occur.|
|D. The injection may be non-sterile.|
|E. The injection may occur at the wrong site.|
Answer C is correct.
- Incorrect storage can lead to reconstitution errors: The drug may be given to the client in mistake for a vaccine or may be used instead of the correct diluent to reconstitute a freeze-dried powder vaccine.
WHO's Immunization in Practice, Module 658 entitled "Holding an immunization session" includes the correct technique for giving each vaccine.Read the document
It is vital that health workers or local vaccinators are trained to store and handle vaccines properly, reconstitute and administer vaccinations correctly, and have the right equipment and materials to do their job.