The recommended sites, routes or doses of administration for each vaccine are established on the basis of clinical studies, experience and theoretical knowledge. The technique and the conditions of administration of the vaccines are important to obtain the right prophylactic results: the generation of the right immune response of the body, the optimal clinical effectiveness of the post-vaccination protection and the minimization of the risk of post-vaccination reactions. – undesirable vaccines.
According to the manufacturer's instructions, vaccines are administered intramuscularly, subcutaneously, intradermally, intranasally (these preparations are currently not available in Poland) and orally. In general, the route of administration is determined during clinical trials before registration of the vaccine, which is linked to the desire to guarantee maximum efficacy and safety.
The choice of route of administration also depends on the composition of the vaccine (eg content of adjuvants, reaction, etc.). The vaccine should be administered at a site that guarantees the generation of immunity, where the risk of damage to tissues, nerves and vessels is minimal. In all cases, the choice of site and route of administration of the vaccine is determined by the indications of the vaccine manufacturer in the product characteristics (manufacturer's information leaflet – www).
To date, no vaccine has been developed that is completely free of the risk of adverse effects and 100% effective. Properly carried out vaccination, preceded by an adequate medical qualification examination, increases its safety and allows greater effectiveness. The medical qualification for vaccination relates to a specific vaccine (preparation) and is valid for 24 hours. Therefore, the date and time of the examination and the name of the preparation that can be used must be written on the application for admission to the vaccination center.
Preparing for the procedure
Vaccination centers must be equipped with a resuscitation kit, which also includes drugs for immediate and effective assistance.
Before vaccination, parents should be informed that their presence increases the child's sense of security and allows him to forget about this unpleasant experience more quickly. Depending on the child's age, state of health, size of muscle mass and personal preferences, the optimal method of pain relief (see below) and distraction should be chosen. child of the intervention itself, as well as the appropriate place to administer the vaccine (see below).
During vaccination, parents should hold the young child in their arms or sit him on their lap. School-aged children, adolescents and adults should be vaccinated while sitting or lying down (for safety reasons in case of fainting; p. below).
It is not recommended to warm the vaccine after removing it from the refrigerator and before administering it, as this does not reduce the patient's sensation of pain and it is not known how this warming affects the immunogenicity of the preparation. .
Respect the principles of asepsis and antisepsis, remembering to: wash and disinfect hands, wear gloves (although their use is not mandatory), correct use of syringes and needles , disinfection of vaccination sites, use of sterile swabs and protection of the injection site with a sterile dressing.
Administration of several vaccines during one visit
When administering more than one vaccine during the same visit, the preparations should not be mixed in the same syringe, except for preparations for which this option is officially registered (this information can be found in the summary characteristics of the product and in the manufacturer's instructions).
If you vaccinate your child with several preparations in one visit, inject each preparation in different areas. In older children and adults, the vaccines can be given, if necessary, in the same muscle of the shoulder in two injections (with different needles) spaced 25 to 50 mm.